Review of: Gina Wilder

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Gina Wilder

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Gina Wilder

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They also continued to observe her in everyday conversations to gauge what pragmatics of language she acquired. The research team considered her language acquisition to be a substantial part of their larger goal of helping her to integrate herself into society, so although they wanted to observe what vocabulary and grammar Genie could learn on her own, out of a sense of obligation they sometimes stepped in to assist her.

Throughout linguists' testing, the size of Genie's vocabulary and the speed with which she expanded it continued to outstrip all anticipations.

By mid she could accurately name most objects she encountered, and clearly knew more words than she regularly used. She clearly mastered certain principles of grammar, and her receptive comprehension consistently remained significantly ahead of her production, but the rate of her grammar acquisition was far slower than normal and resulted in an unusually large disparity between her vocabulary and grammar.

In many cases, the scientists used Genie's language development to help them gauge her overall psychological state. For instance, Genie consistently confused the pronouns you and me , often saying, "Mama love you" while pointing to herself, which Curtiss attributed to a manifestation of Genie's inability to distinguish who she was from who someone else was.

At the time Genie learned to say "May I have [example]" as a ritual phrase she was also learning how to use money, and Curtiss wrote that this phrase gave Genie the ability to ask for payment and fueled her desire to make money, causing her to take a more active role in performing activities which would lead to a reward.

At the start of testing Genie's voice was still extremely high-pitched and soft, which linguists believed accounted for some of her abnormal expressive language, and the scientists worked very hard to improve it.

Despite this she consistently deleted or substituted sounds, making her extremely difficult to understand.

The scientists believed Genie was often unaware of her pronunciation, but on other occasions, she produced haplologies which were clearly intentional and would only speak more clearly if firmly, explicitly requested to; Curtiss attributed the latter to Genie trying to say as little as possible and still be understood.

Papers contemporaneous with the case study indicated that Genie was learning new vocabulary and grammar throughout her entire stay with the Riglers, and were optimistic about her potential to varying degrees.

Furthermore, although she could understand and produce longer utterances, she still primarily spoke in short phrases such as "Ball belong hospital".

Curtiss and Fromkin ultimately concluded that because Genie had not learned a first language before the critical period had ended, she was unable to fully acquire a language.

Sometime during early to mid, the Riglers overheard Genie saying, "Father hit big stick. Father is angry. Father hit arm.

Big wood. Genie cry Not spit. Hit face—spit. Father hit big stick. Father hit Genie big stick. Father take piece wood hit. Father make me cry.

Father is dead. In contrast to her linguistic abilities, Genie's nonverbal communication continued to excel.

She invented her own system of gestures and pantomimed certain words as she said them, and also acted out events which she could not express in language.

Throughout Genie's stay the scientists saw how frequently and effectively she used her nonverbal skills, and never determined what she did to elicit such strong reactions from other people.

Curtiss also recalled one time when, while she and Genie were walking and had stopped at a busy intersection, she unexpectedly heard a purse emptying; she turned to see a woman stop at the intersection and exit her car to give Genie a plastic purse, even though Genie had not said anything.

Starting in the fall of , under the direction of Curtiss, Victoria Fromkin, and Stephen Krashen —who was then also one of Fromkin's graduate students—linguists continued to administer regular dichotic listening tests to Genie until Their results consistently corroborated the initial findings of Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima.

Linguists also administered several brain exams specifically geared towards measuring Genie's language comprehension.

On one such test, she had no difficulty giving the correct meaning of sentences containing familiar homophones , demonstrating that her receptive comprehension was significantly better than her expressive language.

Genie also did very well at identifying rhymes , both tasks that adult split-brain and left hemispherectomy patients had previously been recorded performing well on.

Curtiss, Fromkin, and Krashen continued to measure Genie's mental age through a variety of measures, and she consistently showed an extremely high degree of scatter.

She measured significantly higher on tests which did not require language, such as the Leiter Scale, than on tests with any kind of language component, such as the verbal section of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.

For these they primarily used tachistoscopic tests, and during and they also gave her a series of evoked response tests. As early as Genie scored between the level of an 8-year-old and an adult on all right-hemisphere tasks the scientists tested her on and showed extraordinarily rapid improvement on them.

Her ability to piece together objects solely from tactile information was exceptionally good, and on spatial awareness tests her scores were reportedly the highest ever recorded.

Genie's performance on these tests led the scientists to believe that her brain had lateralized and that her right hemisphere had undergone specialization.

Because Genie's performance was so high on such a wide variety of tasks predominantly utilizing the right hemisphere of her brain, they concluded her exceptional abilities extended to typical right-hemisphere functions in general and were not specific to any individual task.

While even this had been extremely minimal it had been enough to commence lateralization in her right hemisphere, and the severe imbalance in stimulation caused her right hemisphere to become extraordinarily developed.

By contrast, Genie performed significantly below average and showed much slower progress on all tests measuring predominantly left-hemisphere tasks.

There were a few primarily right hemisphere tasks Genie did not perform well on. On one memory for design test, she scored at a "borderline" level in October , although she did not make the mistakes typical of patients with brain damage.

In addition, on a Benton Visual Retention Test and an associated facial recognition test Genie's scores were far lower than any average scores for people without brain damage.

On several occasions during the course of the case study, the NIMH voiced misgivings about the lack of scientific data researchers generated from the case study and the disorganized state of project records.

Outside of the linguistics aspect of research David Rigler did not clearly define any parameters for the scope of the study, and both the extremely high volume and incoherence of the research team's data left the scientists unable to determine the importance of much of the information they collected.

In a unanimous decision, the committee denied the extension request, cutting off further funding. In , when Genie turned 18, her mother stated that she wanted to care for her, and in mid the Riglers decided to end their foster parenting and agreed to let Genie move back in with her mother at her childhood home.

She then contacted the California Department of Health to find care for Genie, which David Rigler said she did without his or Marilyn's knowledge, and in the latter part of authorities transferred Genie to the first of what would become a succession of foster homes.

The environment in Genie's new placement was extremely rigid and gave her far less access to her favorite objects and activities, and her caretakers rarely allowed her mother to visit.

Soon after she moved in they began to subject her to extreme physical and emotional abuse, resulting in both incontinence and constipation resurfacing and causing her to revert to her coping mechanism of silence.

As a result, she was extremely frightened of eating or speaking, and she became extremely withdrawn and almost exclusively relied on sign language for communication.

She quickly started petitioning to have Genie taken out of the home, but Curtiss said that both she and social services had a difficult time contacting John Miner, only succeeding after several months.

In late April , with assistance from David Rigler, Miner removed her from this location. Because of Genie's previous treatment, Miner and David Rigler arranged for her to stay at Children's Hospital for two weeks, where her condition moderately improved.

Through the end of that month into early January Genie lived in a temporary setting, after which authorities put her in another foster home.

She decided to sue Children's Hospital, her therapists, their supervisors, and several of the researchers, including Curtiss, Rigler, James Kent, and Howard Hansen.

Regional media immediately picked up the lawsuit, and members of the research team were shocked when they found out about it.

All of the scientists named in the suit were adamant that they never coerced Genie, maintaining that Genie's mother and her lawyers grossly exaggerated the length and nature of their testing, and denied any breach of confidentiality.

It was dismissed by the Superior Court of the State of California ' with prejudice ,' meaning that because it was without substance it can never again be refiled.

Susan Curtiss said that in late December she had been asked if she could be Genie's legal guardian but that, after she met with Genie on January 3, , Genie's mother suddenly stopped allowing her and the rest of the research team to see Genie again, immediately ending all testing and observations.

Without consulting Miner, on March 30 of that year authorities officially transferred guardianship to her mother, who subsequently forbade all of the scientists except Jay Shurley from seeing her or Genie.

Ruch died in following another stroke. From January until the early s, Genie moved through a series of at least four additional foster homes and institutions, some of which subjected her to extreme physical abuse and harassment.

When Rymer published a two-part magazine article on Genie in The New Yorker in April of that year he wrote that she lived in an institution and only saw her mother one weekend every month, with the first edition of his book, entitled Genie: A Scientific Tragedy , stating this as well.

At that time she told him that Genie had recently moved into a more supportive foster home which permitted regular visits, and said that Genie was happy and, although hard to understand, was significantly more verbal.

Several people who worked with Genie, including Curtiss and James Kent, harshly criticized Rymer's works. In this letter, published in mid-June , he responded to what he said were major factual errors in Angier's review and gave his first public account of his involvement in Genie's case.

Rigler wrote that, as of his writing, Genie was doing well living in a small, private facility where her mother regularly visited her.

As of , Genie is a ward of the state of California living in an undisclosed location in Los Angeles. According to the investigator, she was living a simple lifestyle in a small private facility for mentally underdeveloped adults and appeared to be happy, and reportedly only spoke a few words but could still communicate fairly well in sign language.

Genie's is one of the best-known case studies of language acquisition in a child with delayed linguistic development outside of studies on deaf children.

Since the publication of Curtiss' findings, her arguments have become widely accepted in the field of linguistics. Many linguistics books have used Genie's case study as an example to illustrate principles of language acquisition, frequently citing it as support of Chomsky's hypothesis of language being innate to humans and of a modified version of Lenneberg's critical period hypothesis, and her work with Genie provided the impetus for several additional case studies.

As of , no one directly involved in Genie's case has responded to this controversy. The study of Genie's brain aided scientists in refining several existing hypotheses regarding brain lateralization, especially its effect on language development.

In particular, the disparity between Genie's linguistic abilities and her competence in other aspects of human development strongly suggested there was a separation of cognition and language acquisition, a new concept at the time.

In several of their publications, the scientists acknowledged the influence that Jean Marc Gaspard Itard's study of Victor of Aveyron had on their research and testing.

During the grant meetings in May some of the scientists, including Jay Shurley and David Elkind, voiced concern that the prevailing methods of research pursued scientific study at the expense of Genie's well-being and could cause love and attention to be contingent on her language acquisition.

Kent, Howard Hansen, the Riglers, and Curtiss readily acknowledged that it had been extremely difficult to determine the course of the study, but maintained that all disputes during the meetings were impersonal and typical of scientific discourse.

Ruch never stated a motive for her actions, but members of the research team believed they were due to her anger over her foster custody rejection and her perception that Children's Hospital staff influenced the decision.

Several people have also emphasized the lack of distinction between Genie's caretakers and her therapists.

Shurley thought that Ruch would have been the best guardian for Genie, and felt the Riglers gave her adequate care but viewed her as a test subject first.

He argued that this interfered with providing Genie the best possible care and compromised their objectivity, which in turn contributed to the case study's lack of coherence, and both he and Harlan Lane emphasized that making David Rigler a foster parent accelerated this breakdown.

On several occasions, the Riglers maintained that their home had been the best available option for Genie at the time, and said that both they and everyone who worked with her thought she was doing well.

Several books about feral or abused children contain chapters on Genie, and many books on linguistics and psychology also discuss Genie's case at length.

The independent film Mockingbird Don't Sing , released in , is about Genie's case, primarily from the perspective of Susan Curtiss. For legal reasons, all of the names in the film were changed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abused and neglected feral child studied by linguists. The first publicly released picture of Genie, taken in , just after authorities took control of her care at the age of Arcadia, California , U.

Main article: Linguistic development of Genie. Greater Los Angeles portal Biography portal. Years after the case study on Genie had ended, when somebody asked Susan Curtiss why they had not done so, Curtiss said she and the other scientists felt Lovaas' methods of aversion therapy would have unduly limited Genie's freedom and kept her from getting to the nurturing environment doctors and scientists sought for her.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Being the victim of severe child abuse and a research subject in language acquisition.

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Gina Wilder - Michaela Schaffrath oder Gina Wild

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Genie quickly began growing and putting on weight, and steadily became more confident in her movements. By December, she had good eye—hand coordination and was much better at focusing her eyes.

During the first few months of her stay, giving her one of these objects could bring her out of a tantrum. After a few weeks Genie became much more responsive to other people, and shortly afterward began paying attention to people speaking, but at first she remained mostly unexpressive and it was unclear whether she responded more to verbal or nonverbal stimuli.

Around the same time it was noted that Genie took pleasure in intentionally dropping or destroying small objects, and enjoyed watching someone else do the same to something she had been playing with.

She did not have the same reaction to recordings, and if someone played anything other than classical music she would change the sheet music to a book which she knew had pieces she liked.

By December , Kent and the other hospital staff working with Genie saw her as a potential case study subject.

That month David Rigler obtained a small grant from the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH to do preliminary studies on her, and began organizing a research team to submit a larger request.

Around the same time, doctors noted that she was very interested in people speaking and that she attempted to mimic some speech sounds.

By April and May , Genie's scores on the Leiter International Performance Scale tests had dramatically increased, with her overall mental age at the level of a typical 4-yearmonth-old, but on individual components she still showed a very high level of scatter.

However, she still had a hard time being with large crowds of people; at her birthday party, she became so anxious at all the guests present that she had to go outside with Rigler to calm down.

During the later part of Genie's stay at the hospital, she also started engaging in physical play with adults, and eventually began to enjoy giving and receiving hugs.

This was both her first exhibition of a sense of possession over items she thought were hers but was otherwise impartial towards and the first time she directed her anger outwards, but she did not entirely stop harming herself when angry.

Beginning in January scientists conducted a series of neurolinguistic tests on Genie to determine and monitor the course and extent of her mental development, making her the first language-deprived child to undergo any detailed study of her brain.

Over the following years multiple tests of her handedness supported this conclusion, as did observations of her in everyday situations.

Such an extreme level of asymmetry on these tests had previously only been documented in patients with either split-brain or who had undergone a hemispherectomy as an adult.

On non-language dichotic listening tests, she showed a slight preference for identifying non-language sounds in her left ear, which was typical for a right-handed person and helped rule out the possibility of her brain only being reversed in dominance for language.

Based on these results, Bellugi and Klima believed that Genie had been developing as a typical right-handed person until the time her father began isolating her.

They attributed the imbalance between Genie's hemispheres to the fact that Genie's sensory input as a child was almost exclusively visual and tactile, stimulating functions which are predominantly controlled in the right hemisphere of a right-handed person, and although this input had been extremely minimal it was sufficient to cause their lateralization to the right hemisphere.

Since Genie accurately distinguished speech sounds with her right hemisphere, they thought her language functions had lateralized there instead.

At the time of Genie's admission to Children's Hospital there was wide discussion in both lay and academic circles about the hypotheses of Noam Chomsky , who had first suggested that language was innate to humans and distinguishes humans from all other animals, and Eric Lenneberg , who in hypothesized that humans have a critical period for language acquisition and defined its end as the onset of puberty.

Though ancient and medieval texts made several references to language deprivation experiments modern researchers labeled such ideas "The Forbidden Experiment", impossible to carry out for ethical reasons.

The movie was a major success, and further heightened public interest in cases of children subjected to extreme abuse or isolation. Prompted by this coincidence of timing, David Rigler led a team of scientists who sought and obtained a three-year grant from the NIMH to study Genie in May At the suggestion of Jean Butler, Genie's special education teacher at the hospital, they screened The Wild Child during their first meeting, and the scientists later said the film had an immediate and profound impact.

To the surprise of several scientists involved in the grant meetings, Rigler decided the primary focus of the study would be to test Chomsky and Lenneberg's hypotheses and selected UCLA linguistics professor Victoria Fromkin to head linguistic evaluation.

From the time of her admission to Children's Hospital researchers had tried to keep her identity concealed, and it was around this time that they adopted the pseudonym Genie for her, referencing similarities between a genie coming out of a lamp without having a childhood and Genie's sudden emergence into society past childhood.

Soon after the NIMH accepted the grant proposal, in late May , Susan Curtiss began her work on Genie's case as a graduate student in linguistics under Victoria Fromkin, and for the remainder of Genie's stay at Children's Hospital Curtiss met with Genie almost every day.

Over the following month, she and Genie very quickly bonded with each other. At around the same time Curtiss began her work, doctors reevaluated Genie on the Leiter scale and measured her on the Stanford—Binet Intelligence Scale , which placed her estimated mental age between a 5- and 8-year-old with a very high degree of scatter.

Near the end of that month, after one of these trips, Butler told the hospital that she Butler might have contracted rubella , to which Genie would have been exposed.

Hospital staff were reluctant to give foster custody to Butler and were very skeptical of her story, strongly suspecting she had concocted it as part of a bid to take over as Genie's guardian and primary caretaker, but decided that placing Genie in an isolation ward at the hospital could potentially be highly damaging to her social and psychological development, so they agreed to temporarily quarantine her in Butler's home.

Soon after moving in with Butler, Genie started showing the first signs of reaching puberty , marking a dramatic improvement in her overall physical health and definitively putting her past Lenneberg's proposed critical period for language acquisition.

Butler wrote that Genie could eventually tolerate fenced dogs, but that there was no progress with cats. In her journal, Butler wrote that she had gotten Genie to stop attacking herself when angry and had taught Genie to instead express her anger through words or by hitting objects.

Butler also claimed that, shortly after moving in with her, Genie had become noticeably more talkative and that she had made substantial progress with her language acquisition.

Genie's incontinence gradually improved until, by the end of her stay, she was almost entirely continent. Genie's mother continued to visit Genie, and around the time Genie moved in with Butler, Genie's mother received corrective cataract surgery which restored much of her vision.

During Genie's stay, Butler had the man she was dating move in with her, believing that authorities would view her pending foster application more favorably if she offered a two-parent home.

Researchers believed Butler had good intentions for Genie, but criticized Butler's unwillingness to work with them and thought she negatively affected Genie's care and the case study.

They strongly contested Butler's claims of pushing Genie too hard, contending that she enjoyed the tests and could take breaks at will, and both Curtiss and Kent emphatically denied Butler's accusations towards them.

In mid-August, California authorities informed Butler they had rejected her application for foster custody.

Rigler maintained several times that despite the scientists' objections neither the hospital nor any of its staff had intervened, and said the authorities' decision surprised him.

In early August, Hansen suggested to Rigler that he take custody of Genie if authorities rejected Butler's application, and Rigler initially balked at the idea but decided to talk it over with his wife, Marilyn; Marilyn had graduate training as a social worker and had just completed a graduate degree in human development , and had previously worked in nursery schools and Head Start Programs.

The Riglers had three adolescent children of their own, which Jay Shurley later said made them consider themselves more suitable guardians for Genie than Butler.

Rigler acknowledged the proposed arrangement would clearly put him in a dual relationship with her, but Children's Hospital and authorities decided that, in the absence of other adequate options, they would consent to make the Riglers Genie's temporary foster parents.

On the same day Genie went back to the hospital, the Riglers had Genie transferred to their home in Los Feliz.

David Rigler said that he and Marilyn initially intended the arrangement to last for a maximum of three months, but Genie ultimately stayed with them for almost four years.

While Genie lived with the Riglers her mother usually met with her once a week at a park or restaurant, and their relationship continued to grow stronger.

With the exception of Jay Shurley, who later said he felt the other scientists did not treat her as an equal, Genie's mother did not get along well with the other researchers, some of whom disliked her due to her apathy during Genie's childhood.

Jean Butler, who married shortly after authorities removed Genie from her house and began using her married name, Ruch, stayed in touch with Genie's mother.

Although Genie's mother later recalled that most of their conversations during this time were shallow in nature, they continued to get along very well.

Without any obvious cause, Genie's incontinence immediately resurfaced, and was especially severe for the first few weeks after she moved in but persisted at a lower level for several months.

They also wrote that Genie was extremely frightened of their dog, and upon seeing it for the first time she immediately ran and hid.

The research team recorded her speech being much more halting and hesitant than Ruch had described, writing that Genie very rarely spoke and that, for the first three months of her stay, almost always used one-word utterances.

She continued to have a very difficult time controlling her impulses, frequently engaging in highly anti-social and destructive behavior.

Shortly after Genie moved in, Marilyn taught her to direct her frustrations outward by generally "having a fit. Although the scientists did not yet know the reason for Genie's fear of cats and dogs the Riglers used their puppy in an effort to acclimate her, and after approximately two weeks she entirely overcame her fear of their dog but continued to be extremely afraid of unfamiliar cats and dogs.

Marilyn worked with Genie to help overcome her ongoing difficulty with chewing and swallowing, which took approximately four months.

She also tried to help Genie become more attuned to her body's sensations, and in late Curtiss recorded the first instance of Genie showing sensitivity to temperature.

At first, Genie usually did not listen to anyone unless someone directly addressed her or if Curtiss played classical music on the piano, and if someone spoke to her she almost never acknowledged the other person and usually walked away after a while.

After that, she paid attention to people even when they were not speaking directly to or about her. She became somewhat more sociable in her interactions with people and became somewhat more responsive, although she still frequently showed no obvious signs that she heard someone.

After several months living with the Riglers, Genie's behavior and social skills improved to the point that she started going to first a nursery school and then a public school for mentally retarded children her age.

During the time Genie lived with the Riglers, everyone who worked with her reported that her mood significantly improved and she was clearly content with her life.

The scientists wrote that, while her overall demeanor and interactions with others had significantly improved, many aspects of her behavior remained characteristic of an unsocialized person.

Curtiss began thorough, active testing of Genie's language in October , when she and Fromkin decided that her linguistic abilities were sufficient to yield usable results.

Linguists designed their tests to measure both Genie's vocabulary and her acquisition of various aspects of grammar , including syntax , phonology , and morphology.

They also continued to observe her in everyday conversations to gauge what pragmatics of language she acquired.

The research team considered her language acquisition to be a substantial part of their larger goal of helping her to integrate herself into society, so although they wanted to observe what vocabulary and grammar Genie could learn on her own, out of a sense of obligation they sometimes stepped in to assist her.

Throughout linguists' testing, the size of Genie's vocabulary and the speed with which she expanded it continued to outstrip all anticipations.

By mid she could accurately name most objects she encountered, and clearly knew more words than she regularly used. She clearly mastered certain principles of grammar, and her receptive comprehension consistently remained significantly ahead of her production, but the rate of her grammar acquisition was far slower than normal and resulted in an unusually large disparity between her vocabulary and grammar.

In many cases, the scientists used Genie's language development to help them gauge her overall psychological state. For instance, Genie consistently confused the pronouns you and me , often saying, "Mama love you" while pointing to herself, which Curtiss attributed to a manifestation of Genie's inability to distinguish who she was from who someone else was.

At the time Genie learned to say "May I have [example]" as a ritual phrase she was also learning how to use money, and Curtiss wrote that this phrase gave Genie the ability to ask for payment and fueled her desire to make money, causing her to take a more active role in performing activities which would lead to a reward.

At the start of testing Genie's voice was still extremely high-pitched and soft, which linguists believed accounted for some of her abnormal expressive language, and the scientists worked very hard to improve it.

Despite this she consistently deleted or substituted sounds, making her extremely difficult to understand. The scientists believed Genie was often unaware of her pronunciation, but on other occasions, she produced haplologies which were clearly intentional and would only speak more clearly if firmly, explicitly requested to; Curtiss attributed the latter to Genie trying to say as little as possible and still be understood.

Papers contemporaneous with the case study indicated that Genie was learning new vocabulary and grammar throughout her entire stay with the Riglers, and were optimistic about her potential to varying degrees.

Furthermore, although she could understand and produce longer utterances, she still primarily spoke in short phrases such as "Ball belong hospital".

Curtiss and Fromkin ultimately concluded that because Genie had not learned a first language before the critical period had ended, she was unable to fully acquire a language.

Sometime during early to mid, the Riglers overheard Genie saying, "Father hit big stick. Father is angry. Father hit arm. Big wood.

Genie cry Not spit. Hit face—spit. Father hit big stick. Father hit Genie big stick. Father take piece wood hit.

Father make me cry. Father is dead. In contrast to her linguistic abilities, Genie's nonverbal communication continued to excel.

She invented her own system of gestures and pantomimed certain words as she said them, and also acted out events which she could not express in language.

Throughout Genie's stay the scientists saw how frequently and effectively she used her nonverbal skills, and never determined what she did to elicit such strong reactions from other people.

Curtiss also recalled one time when, while she and Genie were walking and had stopped at a busy intersection, she unexpectedly heard a purse emptying; she turned to see a woman stop at the intersection and exit her car to give Genie a plastic purse, even though Genie had not said anything.

Starting in the fall of , under the direction of Curtiss, Victoria Fromkin, and Stephen Krashen —who was then also one of Fromkin's graduate students—linguists continued to administer regular dichotic listening tests to Genie until Their results consistently corroborated the initial findings of Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima.

Linguists also administered several brain exams specifically geared towards measuring Genie's language comprehension. On one such test, she had no difficulty giving the correct meaning of sentences containing familiar homophones , demonstrating that her receptive comprehension was significantly better than her expressive language.

Genie also did very well at identifying rhymes , both tasks that adult split-brain and left hemispherectomy patients had previously been recorded performing well on.

Curtiss, Fromkin, and Krashen continued to measure Genie's mental age through a variety of measures, and she consistently showed an extremely high degree of scatter.

She measured significantly higher on tests which did not require language, such as the Leiter Scale, than on tests with any kind of language component, such as the verbal section of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.

For these they primarily used tachistoscopic tests, and during and they also gave her a series of evoked response tests. As early as Genie scored between the level of an 8-year-old and an adult on all right-hemisphere tasks the scientists tested her on and showed extraordinarily rapid improvement on them.

Her ability to piece together objects solely from tactile information was exceptionally good, and on spatial awareness tests her scores were reportedly the highest ever recorded.

Genie's performance on these tests led the scientists to believe that her brain had lateralized and that her right hemisphere had undergone specialization.

Because Genie's performance was so high on such a wide variety of tasks predominantly utilizing the right hemisphere of her brain, they concluded her exceptional abilities extended to typical right-hemisphere functions in general and were not specific to any individual task.

While even this had been extremely minimal it had been enough to commence lateralization in her right hemisphere, and the severe imbalance in stimulation caused her right hemisphere to become extraordinarily developed.

By contrast, Genie performed significantly below average and showed much slower progress on all tests measuring predominantly left-hemisphere tasks.

There were a few primarily right hemisphere tasks Genie did not perform well on. On one memory for design test, she scored at a "borderline" level in October , although she did not make the mistakes typical of patients with brain damage.

In addition, on a Benton Visual Retention Test and an associated facial recognition test Genie's scores were far lower than any average scores for people without brain damage.

On several occasions during the course of the case study, the NIMH voiced misgivings about the lack of scientific data researchers generated from the case study and the disorganized state of project records.

Outside of the linguistics aspect of research David Rigler did not clearly define any parameters for the scope of the study, and both the extremely high volume and incoherence of the research team's data left the scientists unable to determine the importance of much of the information they collected.

In a unanimous decision, the committee denied the extension request, cutting off further funding. In , when Genie turned 18, her mother stated that she wanted to care for her, and in mid the Riglers decided to end their foster parenting and agreed to let Genie move back in with her mother at her childhood home.

She then contacted the California Department of Health to find care for Genie, which David Rigler said she did without his or Marilyn's knowledge, and in the latter part of authorities transferred Genie to the first of what would become a succession of foster homes.

The environment in Genie's new placement was extremely rigid and gave her far less access to her favorite objects and activities, and her caretakers rarely allowed her mother to visit.

Soon after she moved in they began to subject her to extreme physical and emotional abuse, resulting in both incontinence and constipation resurfacing and causing her to revert to her coping mechanism of silence.

As a result, she was extremely frightened of eating or speaking, and she became extremely withdrawn and almost exclusively relied on sign language for communication.

She quickly started petitioning to have Genie taken out of the home, but Curtiss said that both she and social services had a difficult time contacting John Miner, only succeeding after several months.

In late April , with assistance from David Rigler, Miner removed her from this location. Because of Genie's previous treatment, Miner and David Rigler arranged for her to stay at Children's Hospital for two weeks, where her condition moderately improved.

Through the end of that month into early January Genie lived in a temporary setting, after which authorities put her in another foster home.

She decided to sue Children's Hospital, her therapists, their supervisors, and several of the researchers, including Curtiss, Rigler, James Kent, and Howard Hansen.

Regional media immediately picked up the lawsuit, and members of the research team were shocked when they found out about it. All of the scientists named in the suit were adamant that they never coerced Genie, maintaining that Genie's mother and her lawyers grossly exaggerated the length and nature of their testing, and denied any breach of confidentiality.

It was dismissed by the Superior Court of the State of California ' with prejudice ,' meaning that because it was without substance it can never again be refiled.

Susan Curtiss said that in late December she had been asked if she could be Genie's legal guardian but that, after she met with Genie on January 3, , Genie's mother suddenly stopped allowing her and the rest of the research team to see Genie again, immediately ending all testing and observations.

Without consulting Miner, on March 30 of that year authorities officially transferred guardianship to her mother, who subsequently forbade all of the scientists except Jay Shurley from seeing her or Genie.

Ruch died in following another stroke. From January until the early s, Genie moved through a series of at least four additional foster homes and institutions, some of which subjected her to extreme physical abuse and harassment.

When Rymer published a two-part magazine article on Genie in The New Yorker in April of that year he wrote that she lived in an institution and only saw her mother one weekend every month, with the first edition of his book, entitled Genie: A Scientific Tragedy , stating this as well.

At that time she told him that Genie had recently moved into a more supportive foster home which permitted regular visits, and said that Genie was happy and, although hard to understand, was significantly more verbal.

Several people who worked with Genie, including Curtiss and James Kent, harshly criticized Rymer's works. In this letter, published in mid-June , he responded to what he said were major factual errors in Angier's review and gave his first public account of his involvement in Genie's case.

Rigler wrote that, as of his writing, Genie was doing well living in a small, private facility where her mother regularly visited her. As of , Genie is a ward of the state of California living in an undisclosed location in Los Angeles.

According to the investigator, she was living a simple lifestyle in a small private facility for mentally underdeveloped adults and appeared to be happy, and reportedly only spoke a few words but could still communicate fairly well in sign language.

Genie's is one of the best-known case studies of language acquisition in a child with delayed linguistic development outside of studies on deaf children.

Since the publication of Curtiss' findings, her arguments have become widely accepted in the field of linguistics. Many linguistics books have used Genie's case study as an example to illustrate principles of language acquisition, frequently citing it as support of Chomsky's hypothesis of language being innate to humans and of a modified version of Lenneberg's critical period hypothesis, and her work with Genie provided the impetus for several additional case studies.

As of , no one directly involved in Genie's case has responded to this controversy. The study of Genie's brain aided scientists in refining several existing hypotheses regarding brain lateralization, especially its effect on language development.

In particular, the disparity between Genie's linguistic abilities and her competence in other aspects of human development strongly suggested there was a separation of cognition and language acquisition, a new concept at the time.

In several of their publications, the scientists acknowledged the influence that Jean Marc Gaspard Itard's study of Victor of Aveyron had on their research and testing.

During the grant meetings in May some of the scientists, including Jay Shurley and David Elkind, voiced concern that the prevailing methods of research pursued scientific study at the expense of Genie's well-being and could cause love and attention to be contingent on her language acquisition.

Kent, Howard Hansen, the Riglers, and Curtiss readily acknowledged that it had been extremely difficult to determine the course of the study, but maintained that all disputes during the meetings were impersonal and typical of scientific discourse.

Ruch never stated a motive for her actions, but members of the research team believed they were due to her anger over her foster custody rejection and her perception that Children's Hospital staff influenced the decision.

Several people have also emphasized the lack of distinction between Genie's caretakers and her therapists. Shurley thought that Ruch would have been the best guardian for Genie, and felt the Riglers gave her adequate care but viewed her as a test subject first.

He argued that this interfered with providing Genie the best possible care and compromised their objectivity, which in turn contributed to the case study's lack of coherence, and both he and Harlan Lane emphasized that making David Rigler a foster parent accelerated this breakdown.

On several occasions, the Riglers maintained that their home had been the best available option for Genie at the time, and said that both they and everyone who worked with her thought she was doing well.

Several books about feral or abused children contain chapters on Genie, and many books on linguistics and psychology also discuss Genie's case at length.

The independent film Mockingbird Don't Sing , released in , is about Genie's case, primarily from the perspective of Susan Curtiss.

For legal reasons, all of the names in the film were changed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Abused and neglected feral child studied by linguists. Radner's SNL work established her as an iconic figure in the history of American comedy.

She died from ovarian cancer in Her autobiography dealt frankly with her life, work, and personal struggles, including those with the illness.

Her widower, Gene Wilder , carried out her personal wish that information about her illness would help other cancer victims, founding and inspiring organizations that emphasize early diagnosis, hereditary factors and support for cancer victims.

She was posthumously awarded a Grammy Award in Radner was inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame in ; and she posthumously received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in She attended the exclusive University Liggett School in Detroit.

Toward the end of her life, Radner wrote in her autobiography, It's Always Something , that during her childhood and young adulthood, she battled numerous eating disorders: "I coped with stress by having every possible eating disorder from the time I was nine years old.

I have weighed as much as pounds and as little as When I was a kid, I overate constantly. My weight distressed my mother and she took me to a doctor who put me on Dexedrine diet pills when I was ten years old.

Radner was close to her father, who operated Detroit's Seville Hotel, where many nightclub performers and actors stayed while performing in the city.

Radner was a featured player on the National Lampoon Radio Hour , a comedy program syndicated to some U. Radner gained name recognition as one of the original " Not Ready for Prime Time Players ", the freshman group on the first season of Saturday Night Live.

She was the first performer cast for the show, [7] co-wrote much of the material that she performed, and collaborated with Alan Zweibel of the show's writing staff on sketches that highlighted her recurring characters.

After Radner's death, Walters stated in an interview that Radner was the "first person to make fun of news anchors, now it's done all the time.

She also played the character Emily Litella , an elderly, hearing-impaired woman who gave angry and misinformed editorial replies on " Weekend Update ".

Radner battled bulimia while on the show. Few details of their relationship or its end were made public. In It's Always Something, this is the one reference Radner made to Murray in the entire book: "All the guys [in the National Lampoon group of writers and performers] liked to have me around because I would laugh at them till I peed in my pants and tears rolled out of my eyes.

Bill Murray joined the show and Richard Belzer Alan Zweibel , who co-created the Roseanne Roseannadanna character and co-wrote Roseanne's dialogue, recalled that Radner, one of three original SNL cast members who stayed away from cocaine, chastised him for abusing it.

While in character as Roseanne Roseannadanna, Radner gave the commencement address to the graduating class at the Columbia School of Journalism in Radner had mixed emotions about the fans and strangers who recognized her in public.

She sometimes became "angry when she was approached [by strangers in public], and upset when she wasn't", according to the book by Hill and Weingrad.

It screened in theaters nationwide in , but achieved poor box-office results. A soundtrack album was also unsuccessful. During the Broadway production, Radner met her first husband, G.

Smith , a musician who worked on the show. They were married in a civil ceremony in They played two people whose spouses are having an affair, and in retaliation begin a relationship of their own consisting of trysts during their lunch hour.

Newspaper critics, including Tom Shales , praised the play and Radner's performance. Radner's SNL castmate Laraine Newman said in a interview that she believed Radner's movie career turned out to be mostly disappointing.

Newman laments that Radner's movie career suffered because directors and producers did not know how to cast her in roles where her talents could best shine.

If she and Alan Zweibel had collaborated on a feature, it might have been a whole different thing. After breaking up with Jeffrey Rubinoff, Radner had an on-again-off-again relationship with Martin Short while both were appearing in Godspell.

Radner had romantic involvements with several male Saturday Night Live castmates, including Bill Murray after a previous relationship with his brother Brian Doyle-Murray and Dan Aykroyd.

Radner's friend Judy Levy recounted Radner saying she found Ghostbusters hard to watch since the cast comprised so many of her ex-boyfriends - Aykroyd, Murray, and Harold Ramis.

Radner met actor Gene Wilder on the set of the Sidney Poitier film Hanky Panky released in , when the two worked together making the film.

She described their first meeting as " love at first sight ". Radner made a second film with Wilder, The Woman in Red released in , and their relationship deepened.

The two were married on September 18, , in Saint-Tropez. Details of Radner's eating disorder were reported in a book about Saturday Night Live by Doug Hill and Jeff Weingrad, [21] which was published and received much media coverage during a period when Radner was consulting various doctors in Los Angeles about symptoms of an illness she was suffering that turned out to be cancer.

In , Radner was experiencing severe fatigue and suffered from pain in her upper legs on the set of Haunted Honeymoon in the United Kingdom.

She sought medical treatment, and for a period of 10 months, various doctors, most of them in Los Angeles , gave her several diagnoses that all turned out to be wrong because she continued to experience pain.

As Radner wrote in It's Always Something :. On July 26 [], Haunted Honeymoon opened nationwide. It was a bomb.

One month of publicity and the movie was only in the theaters for a week — a box-office disaster. Finally, on October 21, , Radner was diagnosed with stage IV ovarian cancer.

Radner then began chemotherapy and radiation therapy treatment, as she wrote in It's Always Something , and the treatment caused extreme physical and emotional pain.

Without asking for her comment, [11] the editors of the publication asserted that she was dying. Radner wrote in It's Always Something :.

They found an old photo of me looking frightened from a 'Saturday Night Live' sketch and blew that up to make the point.

What they did probably sold newspapers, but it had a devastating effect on my family and my friends. It forced Gene [Wilder] to compose a press release to respond.

He said that I had been diagnosed with ovarian cancer, had had surgery, and my prognosis was good. The Enquirer doesn't like good news, so the Gilda Radner story stopped running.

Four months after her ordeal with the National Enquirer , Radner saw her Saturday Night Live castmates one last time at Laraine Newman 's 35th birthday party in March According to Bill Murray [32] when he heard she was leaving the party, he and Dan Aykroyd carried her around the Los Angeles house where the party was held, repeatedly saying goodbye to everyone.

After Radner was told that she had gone into remission , she wrote It's Always Something a catchphrase of her character Roseanne Roseannadanna , [11] which included details of her struggle with the illness.

When Shandling asked her why she had not been seen in public for a while, she replied, "Oh, I had cancer.

What did you have? In September , after tests showed no signs of cancer, Radner went on a maintenance chemotherapy treatment to prolong her remission, but three months later, in December, she learned the cancer had returned.

She was given a sedative and went into a coma during the scan. News of Radner's death broke as Steve Martin was rehearsing to act as the guest host for that night's season finale of Saturday Night Live.

The show's performers and crew, including Lorne Michaels , Phil Hartman , and Mike Myers who had, in his own words, "fallen in love" with Radner after playing her son in a BC Hydro commercial on Canadian television and considered her the reason he wanted to be on SNL , [35] had not known how grave her situation was.

Martin's planned opening monologue was scrapped; in its place a visibly upset Martin introduced a video clip of a sketch in which he and Radner had parodied Fred Astaire and Cyd Charisse in a well-known dance routine from The Band Wagon Gilda, we miss you.

Wilder established the Gilda Radner Hereditary Cancer Program [37] at Cedars-Sinai to screen high-risk candidates such as women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and to run basic diagnostic tests.

He testified before a Congressional committee that Radner's condition had been misdiagnosed and that if doctors had inquired more deeply into her family background they would have learned that her grandmother, aunt, and cousin all died of ovarian cancer, and therefore they might have attacked the disease earlier.

Radner's death helped raise awareness of early detection of ovarian cancer and the connection to familial epidemiology.

In , Gilda's Club , a network of affiliate clubhouses where people living with cancer, their friends, and families, can meet to learn how to live with cancer, was founded by Joanna Bull, Radner's cancer psychotherapist , along with Radner's widower, Gene Wilder also a cancer survivor and broadcaster Joel Siegel who later died after a long battle with cancer.

The first club opened in New York City in The organization took its name from Radner's comment that cancer gave her "membership to an elite club I'd rather not belong to".

Although some local affiliates of Gilda's Club and The Wellness Community have retained their names, many affiliates have adopted the name Cancer Support Community following the merger.

In , the ABC television network dedicated a three-hour block of programming to Radner. The evening kicked off with a one-hour special, "Gilda Radner's Greatest Moments.

In , Radner was inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame for her achievements in arts and entertainment.

Radner appeared to present the honor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American actress and comedian. Radner as Roseanne Roseannadanna in Stand-up film television.

Gene Wilder. There is hardly a female sketch comic today who does not claim Radner as an inspiration for her comedy career.

Los Angeles Daily News. July 11, Film Reference. Retrieved March 11, Seattle Times Newspaper.

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2 Kommentare

Zulushicage · 16.04.2020 um 18:53

Ich meine, dass Sie nicht recht sind. Ich kann die Position verteidigen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden umgehen.

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